ACHILLES TENDON DISORDERS
The commonest problems with the Achilles tendon are either a tear (rupture) or inflammation. Treatment is most commonly non-surgical, but an operation may be needed in either high functioning individuals, or if non-surgical treatment has failed.
ANKLE ARTHRITIS AND DEFORMITY
Ankle arthritis refers to wear and tear of the ankle joint. It usually follows a traumatic event which may have occurred many years before, but may relate to inflammatory conditions too. This can sometimes lead to deformity as well as cause pain. Treatments range from orthotics and injections to surgery.
A sprain means a stretch or tear of the ligaments around the ankle. Ankle splints and physiotherapy are first line treatments, but surgery to stabilise the ankle may be necessary for chronic instability.
BIG TOE ARTHRITIS
Arthritis of the big toe is also known as hallux rigidus and hallux limitus. Pain, swelling and stiffness are the usual symptoms and treatments range from orthotics to injections to surgery (removal of bone spurs and bumps, joint re-surfacing or fusion).
A break in your ankle or any of the bones in your foot is known as a fracture. Treatments typically range from being in plaster or a medical walking boot, to surgery. The more severe the break, the more likely it is an operation is required.
A bunion is a deviation of the big toe joint, and is extremely common. Importantly it does not always cause problems and treatment may not be warranted if that is the case. If it does cause pain or 'transfer' pain to underneath the second and third toes, then an operation to straighten the toe may be needed.
A focal injury to the cartilage (lining) of your ankle joint is known as an osteochondral lesion. Proven treatments for helping symptoms include physiotherapy, injections, ankle arthroscopy with debridement/microfracture, and cartilage regeneration techniques.
Flat feet affect many individuals and are not necessarily a problem unless they cause pain and affect the way you walk. The causes are numerous and treatment (be it insoles, injections or surgery) will depend upon this and whether arthritis is present in the foot.
Arthritis means generalised wear and tear of the cartilage within a joint, whilst midfoot refers to the middle section of your feet approximately halfway between your toes and ankle. Treatment can involve insoles, footwear adaptations, injections and surgery.
These are swellings found in the webspaces between toes which form around the nerves which travel in to the toes. They classically cause pain at the front of the foot or occasionally numbness in the toes, and treatments range from domed insoles, to an injection, or surgery if the swelling is either large or resistant to other treatments.
Neuromuscular conditions are wide ranging but can lead to problems such as high arched feet, weakness and foot drop. Treatment depends upon the underlying cause, and may involve simple interventions such as orthotics, but may need surgery to realign bones (osteotomy), transfer tendons or fuse joints.
This is the commonest cause of heel pain. It typically starts in middle age, is worse in the morning and end of the day, and comes on out of the blue. Regular stretching exercises works in most patients, but other interventions such as shockwave therapy, injections and surgery are viable alternatives.
The list above displays the common conditions that I see and treat but is not exhaustive. If you have a condition not listed and would like to know if I do treat it, then please get in touch.